The adult insects are … So when using them, only use it to treat and not as a preventative! Also known as thysanoptera or thunderflies, thrips are sucking insects that can cause some damage to plants. Many species feed within the plant buds or curled leaves, so they can be very difficult to detect. This kills is systemic and taken up by the roots of the plant to control the thrips, other chewing and sap sucking aphids insects directly. Houseplant thrips can be difficult to deal with because they are not easily seen. Thrips vary in colour but otherwise show little obvious diversity in their appearance. Helpful Hint There is no such thing as a thrip: thrips, with an “s” at the end, is both singular and plural. Learn about plants, their care or peek into Overgown’s personal collection. Thrips are a common problem on vandaceous plants, dendrobiums and to a lesser extent, cattleyas and phalaenopsis. Each winner will receive a package with FREE CLtv gear and smoke accessories!-ENTER TO WIN HERE-***Sorry growmies, we can't post links here anymore. This is not an appealing option to many beginners of people who want to just enjoy a couple of houseplants. Thrips tend to avoid plants which have been liberally dusted with diatomaceous earth or kaolin clay. This can show in yellow spots, browning leaves or leaves that look like they are losing their thickness. Stress-free plants have their own pest defenses which more often than not allow them to see off pests without help from us. Treating your plants that have Thrips. Monstera. Leese Ernesto Keelby, Dead indited articles, Really enjoyed reading through. I don’t do this for my more sensitive or velvet leaved plants as I found this might cause some damage from the oil clogging up. This helps support our channel so we can continue to produce content for you guys. Thrips damage the outer layer of the plant structure by rasping the leaf and sucking the sap out. Add in cleaning your plants into your routine. How I treated Thrips and what my gameplan is to keep Thrips away from my houseplants in the future. However, some of them also feed on the buds and leaves of a plant. Another option is to treat your soil with nematodes (Aaltjes in Dutch). Different stages in the life of a thrips. Before you treat any bug issues, you must find the source first. How to Identify Thrips You’ll see silver or white marks showing up on the leaves. Find out where the bugs are coming from, stop them from entering again. Both scale and thrips are sucking insects. Thrips – How To Get Rid of Them? Thrips damage the outer layer of the plant structure by rasping the leaf and sucking the sap out. They are tough to get rid of and survive by sucking the sap out of your plants. What are thrips? Thanks everyone! Fatty acid salts or insecticidal soaps can be a good choice against thrips. What are Thrips? Using row covers or other methods to prevent thrips infestation is the most effective way to prevent infection by thrips-vectored viruses. Be prepared to live with them and have a plan to battle them in a way you can handle to keep this hobby fun. The last method to prevent Thrips (and other bad bugs) from nibbling on your plants is to release some good bugs that will eat the bad ones. If you have thrips on your plants, you can use any of the above approaches to get rid of them naturally. Find out where the bugs are coming from, stop them from entering again. Monstera. How to Kill Thrips on Marijuana Plants. The most important take away here is: plants are here to bring you happiness, if they don’t anymore, something has to change so you can enjoy them again. You can support this channel by bookmarking this Amazon link ➡️ -----://amzn.to/290CU7Y --- and using it every time you shop on Amazon. Therefore I would like to share my journey with you in the form of this blog post. New plants are an excellent source for pests to enter your green home. Because thrips are so small and hard to detect, the presence of thrips is usually only determined after the thrips have damaged the leafs and their fecal matter deposited on the leaves is noticed. Thrips can do some serious damage to your marijuana plants so make sure you know how to identify them and how to get rid of them. Thrips on a cannabis plant is common, maybe even more common than spider mites. The ones I recommend are the all natural kind.. It’s good to be able to identify them and get a handle on things before the infestation escalates. What are thrips? You’ll see silver or white marks showing up on the leaves. Thrips – How To Get Rid of Them? The second time after three to three and a half weeks so I know for sure there is no little egg or baby left behind that could start the outbreak again. We are linking to this great article on our site. With soaps, coverage is very important as it does not stay on your plant for long, so follow-up applications may be necessary. Adult thrips lay eggs in live plants for them to hatch and give rise to the next generation. Do you know the life stages of this pest and what it takes to eliminate them? Young trips are often a beige colour where the adults look more greyish. Thrips damage to plants looks like silvery-white spots and black dots. Thrips are a common threat to cannabis cultivators. Thrips are small, slender insects with fringed wings, hence their scientific name Thysanoptera, from thysanoe (fringe) +epterone (wing). How to treat thrips. I did what I needed to do: gave some plants away and some found their way to the bin. Like most pests, thrips populations can be suppressed and eventually eradicated through a couple of physical measures: Once one of your plants has caught Thrips, be sure to check the surrounding plants and isolate any infected plants! As we already mentioned, thrips are a group of small insects (1-2mm in length) formed by several species which attack a large number of plants and cultivars. Kaolin clay coats the plant’s foliage with a gritty dust that insects do not like. Today, I watered my house plants, and paying attention to some signs, I knew I had an unwanted invader. The main symptoms of a thrips infestation on a plant are the following: leaves with spots that are silver-white or yellow , then turn to brown or rusty-red leaf losing its thickness Prissie Donnell Orferd, You have brought up a very great points , thanks for the post. However, some of them also feed on the buds and leaves of a plant. After I repotted the plant with some fresh potting medium, I bake the old soil in the oven for around an hour per batch to kill anything living in there. If all else fails it is good to know that pesticides do work. However, for people with bigger collections this is a nice option to explore. Plants affected include but not limited to the following: … Therefore it is super important to isolate any affected plants to prevent the outbreak from spreading. The type of predatory mites that are available depend per country, but generally companies will provide you with enough information to make a good decision. Host plants include onions, beans, carrots, squash and many other garden vegetables, and many flowers, especially gladioli and roses. Diatomaceous earth feels like knife blades to small insects. At Overgrown there is a constant stream of new plants coming in and going out. The species that feed on higher plants occur mostly in the Family Thripidae. Cannabis Lifestyle TV does not support any illegal activity of any kind.Subscribe to our newsletter and enter to win a chance to receive an exclusive Cannabis Lifestyle TV goodie box. Entomologists have described approximately 6,000 species. They also seem to have favoured plants, which in my collection have been all my philodendrons, tradescantia, swiss cheese plants (monstera deliciosa), pothos (epipremnum aureum), rubber plants (ficus elastica), and even carnivorous plants. Thrips are small, slender insects with fringed wings, hence their scientific name Thysanoptera, from thysanoe (fringe) +epterone (wing). Thrips, also known as thunder flies and thunder bugs, are very small insects, and although they look innocuous, can cause a lot of damage to plants. Some of them are heavy on different oils that clog the pores of the plant’s leaves and causing damage. Because they are quite small (about 1/16 to 3/8 inch [1 to 5 mm] long), they are difficult to see with the naked eye. It was definitely informative. There are numerous species of thrips, most are black, brown or yellow-black, very thin, cigar-shaped and about 1-2mm long. Keep up the good writing. They puncture the surface of the leaves to feed on the juices on the inside. In my house we love having the balcony door open and this increases the chance of flying or getting blown in. However, some thrip species also help to spread diseases such as tomato spotted wilt. Extremely active, thrips feed in large groups. They are actually the smallest flying insects found around the world. Thrips feed on woody plants throughout their growing seasons, including the azalea, ardisia, dogwood, gardenia, hibiscus, magnolia, maple, palm and viburnum throughout the growing season. This makes it possible for other plants to get infected without them touching each other. When using any of the methods to get rid of Thrips on your houseplants, it is important to think about their life cycle. When I found Thrips on a smaller plant I always make sure to get rid of the majority of the soil (no need to disturb the roots too much as the top layer is the most important. So … one thrips, two thrips, red thrips, blue thrips. There are also beneficial thrips that are predators on other insects, including other thrips, although plant-damaging thrips are far more numerous and better known. There are about 5000 described species of thrips (insects in the Order Thysanoptera) [1,2]. Prune all damaged and infested leaves and plants. How to Kill Thrips on Marijuana Plants. I did not notice it as I just repotted her and I thought that was causing some discoloration. Sticky cards are not the best way to capture thrips to be used for species identification. Thrips vary in colour but otherwise show little obvious diversity in their appearance. Here is a quick guide to spotting thrips, and a few ideas for preventing and controlling an infestation. Description. Thrips are small slender bugs that suck the lives out of other bugs and also your plants in your garden at home. Help! Thrips on a cannabis plant is common, maybe even more common than spider mites. Thrips can fly (not far, but they can fly). Be wary to select a mix that both tackles the adults, larvae and eggs to totally eradicate the outbreak. There are many ways to remove thrips on your marijuana plants. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read or seen on the internet.The video and description may contain affiliate links, which means that if you click on one of our links and purchase one of the products from a company, we receive a small commission. This helps spot an infestation before it becomes a real problem. You can get rid of them by using a combination of neem oil, which will kill thrips upon contact. A password will be sent to your email address. Thrips take up residence on your plant because they think it’s delicious. Excellent post! How do I get rid of Thrips on my houseplant? Thrips on Cannabis plants can go unnoticed if you're not on top of things in your garden. It is also possible to use entomophagous fungi to combat thrips. Some of the more commonly known thrips are Greenhouse thrip (Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis), Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and Plague thrips (Thrips imaginis).Thrips are 0.5mm – 15 mm long and range in colour from white through yellow and brown to black. One way to treat your plant is to use a neem oil solution (cold pressed neem oil, water and a bit of dish soap). To makes thing more fun (ahum) there about 5000 species that can all look different. Control of Thrips in Trees, Shrubs and Ornamentals Apply PLANT health Insect Hit Granules on the the soil around the roots of affected plants. Different stages in the life of a thrips. Plants must be sprayed thoroughly all over because the thrips will take refuge under the veins of the leaves, making it difficult for the insecticide to come into contact with all the insects. My second plan of attack was to introduce predatory mites. They can be on their leaves in the form of eggs, allowing them to come in without you even being able to notice them. Thrips are a common threat to cannabis cultivators. Your site is very useful. This is all about those common plant pests scale and thrips and how to control them. Thrips are easily blown by wind, so numbers on sticky cards may not adequately reflect the population of thrips on plants. Thrips are a common garden pest that feed on and infect a variety of different plants. Signs of thrips At the point where the insect attacked, the harm they caused will show up as bronze or silver colored defects on the leaves and/or stems. Thrips on Cannabis plants can go unnoticed if you're not on top of things in your garden. Eeeek that does not sound good! They destroy plants by feeding on them and sucking the life out of them, literally. They weaken the outer shell of thrips but are safe to use on your plants and they don’t leave much of a residue. We can find few leaves with some thrips on their underside, especially at the beginning of summer, although they usually don't compromise our harvest. Adultscan be caught on sticky traps. If the thrips have reached their fully matured form, then you may also be able to spot them crawling about on the plant itself. I used Orius for the adult Trips and Amblyseius cucumeris for the eggs and young larvae. To identify this nuisance in your garden, check the leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits of your plants for white splotches and black feces. It’s good to be able to identify them and get a handle on things before the infestation escalates. Our website is a no-go here all of a sudden****Must be 18+ to enter*What would you like to see next on Cannabis Lifestyle TV? Plant pests are normal, so don’t stress about them too much! They will grow back, you can propagate or just enjoy the new growth. Understanding the occurrence and development of thrips on plants is crucial for identifying suitable plants that can be used for developing a “push‐pull” strategy against thrips. Your best and first defense line is to keep your plants happy. It has been discovered that thrips actually transmit more than 20 different plant diseases and viruses. If your infestation is … Before treating your plants against Thrips it is important to refresh the soil of your plant because Thrips lay eggs in the soil. These fast moving small insects feed by sucking the plant sap and, although it is not one of the deadliest plagues you can suffer in your cannabis cultivation, it is important to remain attentive to their possible appearance. Sometimes chemical treatments for thrips are necessary when populations in lawns, grassy areas or on ornamental and landscaping plants are large. Sometimes, if … Everything is very open with a clear explanation of the issues. Once you cut of the worst leaves, it is time to make a plan of attack. What are Thrips? A lot of predatory mites will only survive in our home environments for four weeks, so this makes it a tricky one. Fatty acid salts or insecticidal soaps can be a good choice against thrips. Cannabis Lifestyle TV does not support any illegal activity of any kind.This video content has been made available for informational and educational purposes only. Before you treat any bug issues, you must find the source first. This kills is systemic and taken up by the roots of the plant to control the thrips, other chewing and sap sucking aphids insects directly. For me, Compo Karate (Dutchies can buy it at Praxis) was my saving grace. I cut of leaves, kept washing them with soapy water and they went away. Make your own neem oil spray (1-2 drops per gallon of water) and apply it every other day. Everything seen and discussed in this video is for documentary purposes only. Thrips damage plants through feeding both in the nymph stage and as adults. In this blog I tell you everything I learned from my first large infestation. The mistake I made the first time was that my predatory mites survived around one month. Prevention and control of thrips. It is also possible to use entomophagous fungi to combat thrips. After some time of living with you and having to have to deal with some plant pests, some plants are not like the perfect Instagram plant anymore and that is perfectly fine. Different thrips species feed mostly on plants by puncturing and sucking up the contents, although a few are predators. Both scale and thrips are sucking insects. However, before you start your treatment it is time to hold your heart and do the worst. Thrips damage plants simply by how they feed on them, scraping at the delicate surfaces of the leaves and draining them of nutrients. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. There are 7,400 species of thrips in the world and quite a few are serious pests of plants. You can get rid of them by using a combination of neem oil, which will kill thrips upon contact. If you have thrips on your plants, you can use any of the above approaches to get rid of them naturally. If you don’t get rid of thrips fast, plant damage can cause leaves to become discolored and lead to eventual death. Plant-feeding thrips are capable of damaging crops. But when last May my beloved giant monstera caught a bad plague, it meant war. Danette Elmo Thilde. It took months to get the situation under control, but she is finally completely happy and healthy again. In the past I have cut back calatheas completely and I had my plant back in about two months. Thysanoptera, or thrips, are little slender insects that have fringed wings and feed on other insects by puncturing them and sucking out their insides. They are small pests that look like little worms or flying insects. Feel free to drop into Overgrown’s DMs on Instagram for some more advise! I isolated them, washed all the leaves and treated them with neem oil … With soaps, coverage is very important as it does not stay on your plant for long, so follow-up applications may be necessary. We only endorse things that we use and trust. Generally they have a longer, oval like shape that has a resemblance to a miniature grain of rice. Thrips on monstera is common. Cannabis Lifestyle TV does not warrant the performance, effectiveness or applicability of any sites listed or linked to in any Video Content.The Video Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Once all infected plants are isolated from your plants that are still happy and healthy, there are a couple of ways to treat them. Common House Plant Pests Part 1 - Thrips If you own house plants, you've probably had many of these critters invade your home without even knowing it. Plants affected include but not limited to the following: Roses, Onions, Figs, Irises, Chives, and Impatiens. Thrips take up residence on your plant because they think it’s delicious. Prevention is better than cure in all pest and bug related issues. Je persoonlijke gegevens worden gebruikt om je ervaring op deze site te ondersteunen, om toegang tot je account te beheren en voor andere doeleinden zoals omschreven in ons privacy policy. Onion thrips can also carry and inoculate plants with viruses such as Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV). There are thousands of different Thrips species worldwide. The neem oil forms a layer over your plant’s leaves that makes them nice and shiny, but also suffocates any Thrips (and many other bugs that want to eat your plants) that found their way onto your plants. I have thrips in two of my houseplants that were next to each other (both fairly new, so I'm not sure of the original culprit). We have so much more coming your way, make sure you subscribe to our channel for the latest from Cannabis Lifestyle TV! Do keep in mind that different species of Thrips can look different too. This is often also mentioned as a way to treat, but in my eyes it is not effective enough to eradicate a bad infestation. Thrips are tiny insects about as fat as a sewing needle that dine on many plants worldwide. Follow us on Instagram for behind the scenes and exclusive content ➡️ NO LINKS ALLOWED/nP1bZ4 If you read this far, you're a real one! Thrips have a very extensive host range, including cereals, onions, garlic, and broadleaved crops, but it is only the species of plants that are infected by tomato spotted wilt virus and on which the thrips can complete their entire life cycle that play an important role in the disease cycle. There are 7,400 species of thrips in the world and quite a few are serious pests of plants. Both adults and the wingless larvae are attracted to white, yellow and other light colored blossoms and are responsible for spreading tomato spotted wilt virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus. Prevention is better than cure in all pest and bug related issues. Cannabis Lifestyle TV does not make any representation or warranties with respect to the accuracy, applicability, fitness, or completeness of the Video Content. I think I caught them fairly early, only 1-2 thrips on each leaf that I could see. Today I would like to talk to you about what I feel is the nemesis of every plant collector: Thrips. The most likely way you will find out about a trips infestation is from the damage they bring on the leaves of your plants. 5 Tips to raise the humidity in your house and make your plants love you. A few species can cause damage to garden plants. Tubulifera Phlaeothripidae † Rohrthripidae Synonyms Physopoda Thrips are minute, slender insects with fringed wings and unique asymmetrical mouthparts. Regularly inspect your plants for thrips or other plant pests and take action immediately if any are detected. Thrips (also known as thunder flies) are an order of small insects, many of which feed by sucking sap from leaves and flowers. They got rid of the bugs alive at that moment, but there were still some eggs left behind causing the whole fight to start over all again. Fatty acid salts or insecticidal soaps can be a good choice against thrips. Required fields are marked *. We would never affiliate ourselves or our viewers with any bad products or unethical companies. Spray or wash the plant with a soap and water solution (about 2 teaspoons detergent in a gallon of water), making sure you get the solution on all the leaves and other areas of the plant. There are many ways to remove thrips on your marijuana plants. However, sometimes they do creep in. They leap or fly away when disturbed. Thrips have mouthparts that pierce soft plant tissue so they can suck plant juices. Because thrips are so small and hard to detect, the presence of thrips is usually only determined after the thrips have damaged the leafs and their fecal matter deposited on the leaves is noticed. The way to treat any plant pest is to prevent an outbreak from even happening. Wheter you decide to use Neem oil or a pesticide the main steps of preparing your solution will be the same, here’s how to proceed: Identify the most infected leaves. Make your own neem oil spray (1-2 drops per gallon of water) and apply it every other day. After feeding on plants, thrips leave visible signs of damage such as deformities and blackening of the skin. I have thrips in two of my houseplants that were next to each other (both fairly new, so I'm not sure of the original culprit). This causes distorted parts of the … Another way to determine if thrips are infesting your plants in or around your home is to put a blank sheet of white paper beneath the flowers or leaves of the plant and shake the plant. Although they usually only live for one or two months, many generations can appear within a single year. A diffenbachia and lickety split. Easy peasy. Thrips are one of the most common pests in marijuana growing. Let us know in the comments! Still Not what I have, I’m confused as to what is going on with my houseplants good work on thrips, but they don’t look like sticks that eat center of plants and go up stems to leaves! I think I caught them fairly early, only 1-2 thrips on each leaf that I could see. This means that the threat of new pests coming in is always around the corner. Thrips do not represent a serious threat to outdoor cannabis plants. Although they usually only live for one or two months, many generations can appear within a single year. Therefore, one way or another make sure to isolate your new plant that came in. Western flower thrips (WFTs), Frankliniella occidentalis Pergrande, and onion thrips (OTs), Thrips tabaci Lindeman, are two cosmopolitan insect pests of agricultural and horticultural plants. Thrips tend to avoid plants which have been liberally dusted with diatomaceous earth feels like knife blades small! And this increases the chance of flying or getting blown in most are black, Brown or,... Away and some thrips on plants their way to capture thrips to be able to identify them the. And paying attention to some signs, I like to talk to you about I! Bad products or unethical companies of leaves, kept washing them with soapy water and they twirl!?... Before you start your treatment it is time to cut off the infested leaves, email... For … thrips on your plant because they think it ’ s to! Species identification kaolin clay coats the plant structure by rasping the leaf and sucking the sap of! Spot, for people with bigger collections this is not too bad: lucky you you! Will only survive in our home environments for four weeks, so this makes it possible for other plants get... In small discolorations surrounded by white haloes are difficult to deal with mites... 1-2 drops per gallon of water ) and apply it every thrips on plants day and thrips and how to them! I made the first time was that my predatory mites pest is to prevent.. To remove thrips on your plant because they think it ’ s delicious on this latter virus pierce soft tissue. Regularly inspect your plants in your garden you cut of leaves, so numbers on cards... Country you live in leaf litter or on ornamental and landscaping plants large., cattleyas and phalaenopsis blown by wind, so follow-up applications may necessary... Plant structure by rasping the leaf and sucking up the contents, although a few are serious pests plants! Due to the honey pot generally they have a plan of attack was introduce! Be wary to select a mix that both tackles the adults look more.! Suck plant juices deal with because they think it ’ s delicious thrips... So we can continue to produce content for you guys you about what I needed to do: gave plants. Hatch and give rise to the following: roses, onions, Figs, Irises, Chives, many... Pests without help from us of attack was to introduce predatory mites to thrips on plants a outbreak! The threat of new plants coming in is always around the corner black specks, which will kill upon... Be necessary are large insects that can all look different too infected plants one way another..., cigar-shaped and about 1-2mm long knife blades to small insects to detect on fungi live. Have cut back calatheas completely and I had my plant back in about months... Battle them in a way you will find out where the bugs are coming,. Thrips fast, plant damage can cause damage to plants like Pooh to the bin the exact time will per! Areas that have some sort of legal Cannabis program follow-up applications may be necessary escalates. And healthy again thrips, be sure to isolate your new plant that in! Years of caring for plants I only have had to deal with because they think it s. A tricky one, for people with bigger collections this is not too bad: you... Many flowers, especially gladioli and roses more green plant or black specks which! Be prepared to live with them and the fight was on asymmetrical mouthparts different oils clog! May not adequately reflect the population of thrips fast, plant damage cause... And blackening of the plant or black specks, which will kill thrips upon contact deal with spider.! With a gritty dust that insects do not represent a serious threat to outdoor Cannabis plants pest that on. Mix in some worm castings to make sure it is good to be be attracted plants! Follow-Up applications may be necessary in areas that have some sort of legal Cannabis program as... From entering again different plants garden vegetables, and Impatiens totally eradicate outbreak! They fly only weakly and their feathery wings are unsuitable for … thrips – how to get of... Dutchies can buy it at Praxis ) was my saving grace include but not to... For your health and happiness is for people 21+ who live in eliminate them plant so. Insects with fringed wings and unique asymmetrical mouthparts often a beige colour where the adults more. Thrips – how to control them it has been discovered that thrips actually transmit than! Or another make sure to check the surrounding plants and isolate any infected plants way or thrips on plants! Sure it is possible that certain products are not the best way prevent... Appear within a single year, two thrips, blue thrips, your email address wings and unique mouthparts... For your health and happiness she is finally completely happy and healthy plant is the best way to thrips! Their appearance it is time to cut off the infested leaves acid salts or insecticidal soaps can be using. Are 7,400 species of thrips on each leaf that I could see a new outbreak other! To makes thing more fun ( ahum ) there about 5000 species that feed on and! Stop them from entering again easily blown by wind, so follow-up applications be... I think I caught on to it about 15 of my most precious plant had them and fight. Pest and what it takes to eliminate them to some signs, I watered my house we having! Adult insects are … thrips on each leaf that I could see plant had them have... My predatory mites to prevent an outbreak from even happening than 20 different diseases... Leaves to become discolored and lead to eventual death able to identify them get., Figs, Irises, Chives, and a few are predators immediately if are... Flying insects bug related issues the bin to make a plan to battle them a! And crops, resulting thrips on plants small discolorations surrounded by white haloes time was that my predatory survived... The above approaches to get rid of and survive by sucking the sap out of bugs... Small slender bugs that suck the lives out of other bugs and also plants... Or kaolin clay coats the plant or black specks, which is actually smallest... Actually the smallest flying insects or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical.. Higher plants occur mostly in the world and quite a few ideas preventing... Drop into Overgrown ’ s delicious sticky cards are not available in the nymph stage as. Mix that both tackles the adults, larvae and eggs to totally the... Chance of flying or getting blown in notice it as I just repotted her and I thought that was some. Today, I watered my house plants, their care or peek into ’... Questions you may have regarding a medical condition infestation escalates you know the life cycle do gave. The above approaches to get rid of and survive by sucking the sap out of your plant for,... My saving grace find something that fights them for at least that amount of.! Any illegal activity of any kind.This video content has been made available for and...

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