"Unlike cocaine and amphetamine, methamphetamine is directly toxic to midbrain dopamine neurons. He called the compound "phenylisopropylamine". Pharmacologic mechanisms of crystal meth. DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is usually taken orally, but can also be insufflated, injected, or administered rectally. Amphetamine, also known as amp, fet or speed. [41] No formal studies in humans have been carried out and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. [37] Animal models of neurotoxicity from high-dose amphetamine exposure indicate that the occurrence of hyperpyrexia (i.e., core body temperature ≥ 40 °C) is necessary for the development of amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Amphetamine was first synthesized in Germany in 1887 by the Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu, who named it phenylisopropylamine. However, the first five attempts (Velocity 1 to 5) were failures. These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. Chem. Amphetamine (Drug) Description Mid-strong and fairly addictive speed drug Type Powder Price $7 Level 0 Size 0.5 Weight 0.25 Mixing Details Addiction Low Strength Low Toxicity Medium-Low Mix Strength Low Amphetamines are stimulant drugs. PMC 3236098 Freely accessible. Recreational use of amphetamine is associated with abuse and dependence. Berlin; London: Springer. Potential adverse effects of amphetamine treatment on brain and behavior: a review. Many different names are used for amphetamines. Speed is a dangerous, illicit drug that can cause many of the same effects as cocaine, crack, and other stimulants. In: Berichte der Deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin; 20. A version of the drug, created by "Jay", seemingly caused the loss of his powers, as well as his cellular degenerative disease. These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. Marihuana, also known as grass, ganja, weed or MJ. Lisdexamfetamine is the same drug (dextroamphetamine) BUT is bound to an Amino acid L-Lysine and needs to be metabolized in order to convert it into useable D-Amphetamine, it takes time for this conversion to happen leading to a prolonged T-Max and C-max and more stable overall dosage and effects throughout the entire serum level. Amfetamine (in straattaal ook wel speed, pep, snelle of belly genoemd) is een synthetisch psychofarmacon en drug.De dextro-isomeer van amfetamine (dextro-amfetamine) wordt voorgeschreven als therapie voor ADHD en narcolepsie.Het racemaat van amfetamine kent momenteel geen medicinale toepassingen in Nederland en wordt slechts recreatief gebruikt. Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. Med. PMID 15955613. The concentrations of the main neurotransmitters involved in reward circuitry and executive functioning, dopamine and norepinephrine, increase dramatically in a dose-dependent manner by amphetamine because of its effects on monoamine transporters. Speedball (or powerball) is a mixture of cocaine (a stimulant) with heroin or morphine (an opioid) or sometimes benzodiazepine, taken intravenously or by nasal insufflation. The addictive potential of this substance is rather high as well. Amphetamine exerts its behavioral effects by altering the use of monoamines as neuronal signals in the brain, primarily in catecholamine neurons in the reward and executive function pathways of the brain. Independent research (e.g. "Hyperthermia alone does not produce amphetamine-like neurotoxicity but AMPH and METH exposures that do not produce hyperthermia (≥40°C) are minimally neurotoxic. J. Hist. Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., & Ling, W. (2009). Methamphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is an equal mixture of levomethamphetamine … Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (9). It was widely used to treat a wide range of ailments such as alcohol hangover, narcolepsy, depression, and weight reduction. Het gebruik is geestelijk verslavend. [7] Central nervous system stimulants: historical aspects and clinical effects. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity. Chemically, it is similar to methamphetamine. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2011.10.007. Prijeđi na navigaciju Prijeđi na pretraživanje. The generally tolerant official drug policy in the Third Reich, the period of Nazi control of Germany from the 1933 Machtergreifung to Germany's 1945 defeat in World War II, was inherited from the Weimar government which was installed in 1919 following the dissolution … "Amphetamine, past and present – a pharmacological and clinical perspective". p. 370. [1][2] The class of drugs containing amphetamine includes prescription drugs commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Speed also goes by the street names “Ice, Crystal meth and Shabu ” 2 The drug works using Dopamine. Med. Methamphetamine, when abused, is commonly r… "Benzedrine sulphate in clinical medicine; a survey of the literature". What is speed? ISBN 9780195030570. Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use, but is unlikely to arise from typical medical use.[44][45][46]. The National Drug Intelligence Center reports that between two and four million children have been diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and as a result been legally prescribed amphetamine, which can improve symptoms when used properly. (2008). [34][35][36], In rodents and primates, sufficiently high doses of amphetamine causes damage to dopamine neurons, characterized as reduced transporter and receptor function. The LD50 (the dosage required to kill 50% of the test subjects) of amphetamine in rats has been found to be between roughly 15 mg and 180 mg per kilogram, depending on the study. Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). Depending on purity, amphetamine doses will vary. "Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review". Speed is amphetamine, a stimulating drug that triggers the brain’s reward system giving the user feelings of pleasure. Simple English: Amphetamine is a synthetic drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. When prescription amphetamines are taken orally and in low doses, drug abuse and addiction is not a serious risk. No pharmacological use was found for amphetamine until 1927, when pioneer psychopharmacologist Gordon Alles resynthesized it. WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. Mental effects may include an intense feeling of happiness, sexual arousal, loss of contact with reality, or agitation. The amphetamine speed is actually a “slang” name for the entire class of drugs known as amphetamines. Methamphetamine has two isomers, "left-handed" and "right-handed". J. Interdiscip. "Chemical and Physical Properties". These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. In reality, "Jay" had in fact increased his speed, but at the cost o… See also drug abuse and drug dependence. Addiction to speed drug presents in a specific way, and this article’s information will discuss more on the signs, adverse effects, and how to treat an … 1. a white crystalline powder used as a central nervous system stimulant. Speed, ulični je naziv za prilično Å¡irok spektar kemijske obitelji metamfetamina. PMC 4183197 Freely accessible. Methamphetamine is classified as a Schedule II stimulant by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), which means it has a high potential for abuse and is available legally only by prescription. They are somewhat comparable to. Jg. As its addictive properties became known, governments began to place strict controls on its sale. Speed’s effects cover more than just the intended, desirable high. Hyperthermia likely enhances AMPH and METH neurotoxicity directly through disruption of protein function, ion channels and enhanced ROS production. Kish, S. J. In Sydor A, Brown RY. Springer, Boston, MA. Finding speed. [16] The euphoric and locomotor-stimulating effects of amphetamine are dependent upon the magnitude and speed by which it increases synaptic dopamine and norepinephrine concentrations in the striatum.[17]. Initially, amphetamine was more popularly used to reduce appetite and to control weight. Nausea 5. Benzedrine sulfate was introduced 3 years later and was used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions, including narcolepsy, obesity, low blood pressure, low libido, and chronic pain. ; Changing speed. " Black beauty " was a drug street-name used in the '60s and '70s to refer to a pill of pharmaceutical amphetamine (aka speed). The list below includes some known dangerous combinations (although it cannot be guaranteed to include all of them). Amphetamine (also known as alpha-methylphenethylamine, amfetamine, and speed) is a stimulant substance of the phenethylamine class. Efficacy of psychostimulant drugs for amphetamine abuse or dependence. [13], Amphetamine is still illegally synthesized and sold on the black market, primarily in European countries. 2. any of a group of drugs closely related to this substance and having similar actions, such as methamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Mohan J, ed. They include Benzedrine and speed. ISBN 9780071481274. Galli, A., Poulsen, N.W., Sulzer, D., & Sonders, M.S. In animal models that evaluate the neurotoxicity of AMPH and METH, it is quite clear that hyperthermia is one of the essential components necessary for the production of histological signs of dopamine terminal damage and neurodegeneration in cortex, striatum, thalamus and hippocampus." Amphetamine is a chiral compound. (1887), Band 3, S. 616–622. 1216: 86–98. Government of Vermont. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) |, Update on Amphetamine Neurotoxicity and Its Relevance to the Treatment of ADHD |, Bowyer JF, Hanig JP (November 2014). 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It is removed excreted by the kidneys and only a small amount by hepatic enzymes. During 2012, approximately 5.9 metric tons of illicit amphetamine were seized within EU member states;[14] the "street price" of illicit amphetamine within the EU ranged from €6–38 per gram during the same period. It is also used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy, amongst others. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill. J. Psychopharmacol. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy. Amphetamine, past and present–a pharmacological and clinical perspective. Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine. These include: 1. 10 Things You Should Know About Speed drug. [8], In late 1933, Smith, Kline and French began selling amphetamine in the form of a decongestant inhaler under the name Benzedrine. [5][6] Additionally, it sees widespread illicit use as a performance enhancing agent and recreational substance. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A (April 2005). Synapse, 39 1, 32-41. doi: 10.1002/1098-2396(20010101)39:1<32::AID-SYN5>3.0.CO;2-3. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) |, Narcolepsy: current treatment options and future approaches |. PMID 22037049. Bull. Amphetamine was first synthesized in Germany in 1887 by the Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu, who named it phenylisopropylamine.However, its stimulant effects remained unknown until 1927, when it was independently re-synthesized by Gordon Alles and discovered to have sympathomimetic properties. p. 329. pp. PMID 22849208. 99-165). Eiden LE, Weihe E (January 2011). Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant most frequently used as a recreational drug. 1 (3): 172–182. "Medical science and the military: the Allies' use of amphetamine during World War II". Withdrawal symptoms include paranoia, depression, dream potentiation, anxiety, itching, mood swings, irritability, fatigue, insomnia, an intense craving for more amphetamine or other stimulants. Additional experience reports can be found here: As of March 2014, there is no evidence that amphetamine is directly neurotoxic in humans. All amphetamines, whether legal or illegal, activate chemical processes throughout the brain and body and so “speed up” most every bodily function. Amphetamine presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of amphetamine most stimulants will have a reduced effect. Speedball is a dangerous mixture, often more so than the sum of the parts due to drug synergy.The original speedball used cocaine hydrochloride mixed with morphine sulfate, as opposed to heroin. Amphetamine is considered to be the quintessential member of the stimulant class due to its extensively studied effects and long history of clinical use. Amphetamine is not approved for use in children less than 6 years of age, with the exception of Evekeo (approved for children age 3 and older). 318, 321. The exact bioavailability of amphetamine is not known, but it is believed to be over 75% by mouth, and higher by injection or intranasal administration[24][25]. [4] Bioorg. Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by Lazar Edeleanu at the University of Berlin. Paranoia 4. Amphetamine exerts its behavioural effects by increasing the signaling activity of neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine in the reward and executive function pathways of the brain. Severe amphetamine overdose can result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, delusions). p. 78. ISBN 9780071624428. Speed is a drug that targets your brain’s ‘reward system’ to produce a positive sensation that can become addictive. PubChem Compound. Progress in Neurobiology, 75 6, 406-33. [citation needed], At room temperature, the pure free base of amphetamine is a mobile, colorless, and volatile liquid with a characteristically strong amine odor, and acrid, burning taste.[15]. Amphetamine may be habit-forming, and this medicine is a drug of abuse. Lazăr Edeleano: Über einige Derivate der Phenylmethacrylsäure und der Phenylisobuttersäure. Today, amphetamine is used clinically for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. Many people use it illegally, but it is occasionally used legally by prescription to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or obesity as "Desoxyn". Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. "Chapter 13: Higher Cognitive Function and Behavioral Control". In Sydor A, Brown RY. For example, an object's speed can be measured in miles per hour (mph),; kilometers per hour (km/h); meters per second (m/s), which is the SI-unit for speed. It is odorless and has a slightly bitter taste. PMID 22073434. Ecstasy, also known as candy or MDMA. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance. Goodman & Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (12th ed.). Internationally, amphetamine is a Schedule II controlled substance under the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[51]. The pharmacology and clinical outcomes of amphetamines to treat ADHD: does composition matter? Allied Sci. [21] Consequently, dextroamphetamine produces greater CNS stimulation than levoamphetamine, roughly three to four times more, but levoamphetamine has slightly stronger cardiovascular and peripheral effects.[22][23]. Dangerous poisoning. PMID 23539642. [18][19][20] Combined action on TAAR1 and VMAT2 results in increased concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine in the synapses, which stimulates neuronal activity. doi:10.1136/pgmj.22.250.205. Alles was part of a group of researchers looking for an ephedrine substitute. Defalque RJ, Wright AJ (April 2011). A powerful stimulant that keeps people alert, usually sold as an off-white or pinkish powder – that sometimes look like small crystals How it looks, tastes and smells How do people take it? Retrieved 18 August 2014. Bett WR (August 1946). Berman, S. M., Kuczenski, R., McCracken, J. T., & London, E. D. (2009). "Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia: Implications of the effects produced in brain vasculature and peripheral organs to forebrain neurotoxicity". Tell your doctor if you have had problems with drug or alcohol abuse. 22 (250): 205–218. Lewin AH, Miller GM, Gilmour B (December 2011). "Methamphetamine for Hitler's Germany: 1937 to 1945". It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses are more likely to induce the full spectrum of effects. [14] Outside Europe, the illicit market for amphetamine is much smaller than the market for methamphetamine and MDMA. Učinci su, na srediÅ¡nji živčani sustav, jači nego kod amfetamina. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications |, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lisdexamfetamine Compared with d-Amphetamine in Healthy Subjects |, Stimulants for the Control of Hedonic Appetite |, Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of d rugs of potential misuse (ScienceDirect) |, Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). In Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy amount of skepticism. [47] A review on treatment for amphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance. Amphetamine has a high abuse potential and can cause dependence with chronic use. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05906.x. New York: Oxford University Press. Med. Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887, but its psychostimulant effects were not discovered until 1929. Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology. Subjective effects include stimulation, focus enhancement, motivation enhancement, increased libido, appetite suppression, and euphoria. Prog. The name 'amphetamine' is a contraction from αlphamethylphenethylamine, Attention disorders are often treated using Adderall or a generic equivalent, a formulation of mixed amphetamine salts that contain both racemic-amphetamine, in the sulfate and aspartate monohydrate salt forms, and enantiopure dextroamphetamine, in the sulfate and saccharate salt forms, mixed to yield a final ratio of 3 parts dextroamphetamine to 1 part levoamphetamine. Sometimes, the drug is used for fun or to boost performance. This page was last modified on 6 December 2020, at 20:40. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction reports the typical retail price of amphetamine in Europe varied between €3 and €15 ($4 to $21.55 USD) a gram in half of the reporting countries. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009695.pub2. The drug is a stimulant: it can help people keep the focus and stay awake. [11][12] Tolerance to many of the effects of amphetamine develops with prolonged and repeated use. Hofmann FG (1983). PMC 3666194 Freely accessible. Speed (methamphetamine, C10H15N) is a potent and addictive central nervous system stimulant, chemically related to amphetamine, but with greater central nervous system side effects. [33] However, high-dose amphetamine can cause indirect neurotoxicity as a result of increased oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species and autoxidation of dopamine. "Miscellaneous Sympathomimetic Agonists" |. (June 2014). The drug is a stimulant: it can help people keep the focus and stay awake. 75 (6): 406–433. |, Role of Melatonin in Reducing Amphetamine-Induced Degeneration in Substantia Nigra of Rats via Calpain and Calpastatin Interaction |, Neuroprotective effects of melatonin on amphetamine-induced dopaminergic fiber degeneration in the hippocampus of postnatal rats. Stolerman IP (2010). Temperature (Austin). Speed drug also known by the names; upper, phet, billy, whiz, sulph, base, dexedrine, or dexamphetamine is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting central nervous system stimulant, chemically related to amphetamine, but with greater central nervous system effect which begins within 20 minutes and lasts for 4-6 hours. J. Dangerously high body temperatures 2. In Stimulants (pp. Amphetamine is a potent full agonist of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) and interacts with vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Angrist, B., & Sudilovsky, A. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is used in all … The basic form is more readily absorbed in the intestine and less readily removed by the kidneys, potentially increasing its half life [25]. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. Rasmussen N (July 2006). See responsible use section. Upon single administration, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Many side effects associated with the drug are adverse effects that negatively impact users. Stolerman IP, ed. "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929–1950". (2013). Neurobiol. [42][43] Amphetamine is a synthetic drug. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. ", Dopaminergic neuron-specific oxidative stress caused by dopamine itself. Crystal Meth, also known as crystal or meth. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. [14], Amphetamine, also known as alpha-methylphenethylamine, is a synthetic substance of the phenethylamine family. Important information. Chemically, it is the parent compound of the substituted amphetamines, a group which includes a diverse range of substances like bupropion, phenmetrazine, MDMA, and DOx. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. (1978). There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Many of these effects are not life-threatening, but potential dangers exist fo… "World Drug Report 2014" (PDF). "Trace amine-associated receptor 1 is a stereoselective binding site for compounds in the amphetamine class". "Historical overview of methamphetamine". Its absorption and excretion may be pH dependent. Tremors 8. "VMAT2: a dynamic regulator of brain monoaminergic neuronal function interacting with drugs of abuse". Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a literature based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. Popularly known as bennies, crank, speed, pep pills, wakeups, or uppers, amphetamines are addictive and easily abused: users can become psychologically dependent on the drugs and, developing a tolerance for them, can require increasingly large doses (see drug addiction and drug abuse drug addiction and drug abuse, PMID 20997404. [38], Melatonin has been shown to prevent (if used 30min+ before dosing) and reverse amphetamine induced neurotoxicity of TH-pSer40 and calpastatin levels in the Substantia Nigra of rats.[39][40]. Sci. Retrieved 29 January 2012. Speed is classed as a ‘stimulant’ because it speeds up the messages going to and from your brain. 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